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光栅机床精度-数控机床线性坐标轴的全闭环控制

  • 发布日期:17-08-17 15:40
  • 点击数:50

FENXIANGDAO:

一、线性光栅尺选型

(1) ZHUNQUEDUDENGJIDEXUANZE SHUKONGJICHUANGPEIZHIXIANXINGGUANGZHACHISHILETIGAOXIANXINGZUOBIAOZHOUDEDINGZHIJINGDU、ZAIFUDINGWEIJINGDU,SUOYIGUANGZHACHIDEZHUNQUEDUDENGJISHISHOUXIANYAOKAOLVDE,GUANGZHACHIZHUNQUEDUDENGJIYOU± 0.01mm、±0.005mm、±0.003mm、±0.02mm。ERWOMENZAISHEJISHUKONGJICHUANGSHIGENJUSHEJIJINGDUYAOQIULAIXUANZEZHUNQUEDUDENGJI,ZHIDEZHUYIDESHIZAIXUANYONGGAOJINGDUGUANGZHACHISHIYAOKAOLVGUANGZHACHIDEREXINGNENG,TASHIJICHUANGGONGZUOJINGQUEDUDEGUANJIANHUANJIE,JIYAOQIUGUANGZHACHIDEKEXIANZAITIDEREPENGZHANGXISHUYUJICHUANGGUANGZHACHIANZHUANGJITIDEREPENGZHANGXISHUXIANGYIZHI,YIKEFUYOUYUWENDUYINQIDEREBIANXING。

LINGWAIGUANGZHACHIZUIDAYIDONGSUDUKEDA120m/min,MUQIANKEWANQUANMANZUSHUKONGJICHUANGSHEJIYAOQIU;DANGEGUANGZHACHIZUIDAZHANGDUWEI3040mm,RUKONGZHIXIANXINGZUOBIAOZHOUDAYU3040mmSHIKECAIYONGGUANGZHACHIDUIJIEDEFANGSHIDADAOSUOXUZHANGDU。

(2) CELIANGFANGSHIDEXUANZE GUANGZHACHIDECELIANGFANGSHIFENZENGLIANGSHIGUANGZHACHIHEJUEDUISHIGUANGZHACHILIANGZHONG,SUOWEIZENGLIANGSHIGUANGZHACHIJIUSHIGUANGZHASAOMIAOTOUTONGGUODUCHUDAOCHUSHIDIANDEXIANGDUIYUNDONGJULIERHUODEWEIZHIXINXI,WEILEHUODEJUEDUIWEIZHI,ZHEIGECHUSHIDIANJIUYAOKEDAOGUANGZHACHIDEBIAOCHISHANGZUOWEICANKAOBIAOJI,SUOYIJICHUANGKAIJISHIBIXUHUICANKAODIANCAINENGJINXINGWEIZHIKONGZHI。ERJUEDUISHIGUANGZHACHIYIBUTONGKUANDU、BUTONGWENJUDESHANXIANZHAXIANJIANGJUEDUIWEIZHISHUJUYIBIANMAXINGSHIZHIJIEZHIZUODAOGUANGZHASHANG,ZAIGUANGZHACHITONGDIANDETONGSHIHOUXUDIANZISHEBEIJIKEHUODEWEIZHIXINXI,BUXUYAOYIDONGZUOBIAOZHOUZHAOCANKAODIANWEIZHI,JUEDUIWEIZHIZHICONGGUANGZHAKEXIANSHANGZHIJIEHUODE。

JUEDUISHIGUANGZHACHIBIZENGLIANGSHIGUANGZHACHICHENGBENGAO20%ZUOYOU,JICHUANGSHEJISHIYINKAOLVSHUKONGJICHUANGDEXINGJIABI,YIBANXUANYONGZENGLIANGSHIGUANGZHACHI,JINENGBAOZHENGJICHUANGYUNDONGJINGDUYOUNENGJIANGDIJICHUANGCHENGBEN。DANSHIJUEDUISHIGUANGZHACHIKAIJIHOUBUXUHUICANKAODIANDEYOUDIANSHIZENGLIANGSHIGUANGZHACHIWUFABINIDE,JICHUANGZAITINGJIHUOGUZHANGDUANDIANHOUKAIJIKEZHIJIECONGZHONGDUANCHUZHIXINGJIAGONGCHENGXU,BUDANSUODUANFEIJIAGONGSHIJIANTIGAOSHENGCHANXIAOLV,ERQIEJIANXIAOLINGJIANFEIPINLV。YINCIZAISHENGCHANJIEPAIYAOQIUGEHUOYOUDUOTAISHUKONGJICHUANGGOUCHENGDEZIDONGSHENGCHANXIANSHANGXUANYONGJUEDUISHIGUANGZHACHISHIZUIWEILIXIANGDE。

(3) SHUCHUXINHAODEXUANZE GUANGZHACHIDESHUCHUXINHAOFENDIANLIUZHENGXIANBOXINHAO、DIANYAZHENGXIANBOXINHAO、TTLJUXINGBOXINHAOHETTLCHADONGJUXINGBOXINHAOSIZHONG,SUIRANGUANGZHACHISHUCHUXINHAODEBOXINGBUTONGDUISHUKONGJICHUANGXIANXINGZUOBIAOZHOUDEDINGWEIJINGDU、ZHONGFUDINGWEIJINGDUMEIYOUYINGXIANG,DANBIXUYUSHUKONGJICHUANGXITONGXIANGPIPEI,RUGUOSHUCHUXINHAODEBOXINGYUSHUKONGJICHUANGXITONGBUPIPEI,DAOZHIJICHUANGXITONGWUFACHULIGUANGZHACHIDESHUCHUXINHAO,FANKUIXINXI、BUCHANGWUCHADUIJICHUANGXIANXINGZUOBIAOZHOUQUANBIHUANKONGZHIWUCONGTANQI。ZAISHIJIANZHONGQUEYOUSHUCHUXINHAODEBOXINGYUSHUKONGJICHUANGXITONGBUPIPEIDEQINGKUANG,BUGUOCHULICIQINGKUANGYEYOUBANFA,ZHIYAOZAISHUCHUXINHAOYUJICHUANGXITONGJIANJIAZHUANGYIGESHUZIHUADIANZIZHUANGZHI(RU:HEIDENHAINDEDEIBV600XILIEDEXIFENHESHUZIHUADIANZIZHUANGZHI),JIUHENRONGYIJIEJUELE。

二、线性光栅尺的结构设计

GUANGZHACHIDEJIEGOUSHEJIYUANZHUANGBIGUANGZHACHIXUANXINGGENGZHONGYAO,WULUNNAGEHUANJIECHULIBUDANG,DOUYANZHONGYINGXIANGGUANGZHACHIDEKONGZHIJINGDU,YOUKENENGCHUXIANQUANBIHUANJINGDUFANERBURUBANBIHUANDEXIANXIANG。

1.行走姿势对光栅尺检测精度的影响

(1) QUDONGZHOUXIANYUZAIZHONGZHONGDIANWEIZHIDEZHONGHEDU ZHONGSUOZHOUZHI,TUIZHEWUTIYIDONGSHI,RUGUOMEIYOUTUIDAOQIZHONGDIANWEIZHI,HENRONGYIZAOCHENGWUTIZHUANDONG,CHUXIANBAIDONGDENGBUWENDINGXIANXIANG。YAOQIUDONGZHOUXIANJINLIANGYUZAIZHONGZHONGDIANWEIZHIZHONGHE,ERSHIJIANZHONGYOUYUSHOUJIEGOU、JIAGONGWUCHADEXIANZHI,QUDONGZHOUXIANYUZAIZHONGZHONGDIANWEIZHIYOUYIDINGDEJULI,DAOZHILESIGANGTUODONGZAIZHONGWUSHICHUXIANLEBAIDONGDEXIANXIANG。

(2)DAOGUIZUNITEXINGDEYIZHIXING LIANGTIAODAOGUIZUNITEXINGDEYIZHIXINGYESHIYIXIANGHENZHONGYAODEYINGXIANGYINSU。LIANGTIAODAOGUIZUNITEXINGDEBUYIZHIYEHENRONGYIZAOCHENGWUTICHUXIANBAIDONGDEXIANXIANG,RUTU1SUOSHI。

(3) GUANGZHACHIDEANZHUANGWEIZHIJINKENENGKAOJINQUDONGZHOUXIAN DADUOSHUJICHUANGDEXIANXINGZUOBIAOZHOUQUDONGXITONGYIBANDOUSHIYUNYONGJINGMIGUNZHUSIGANGFU,LILUNSHANGYAOQIUGUANGZHACHIJINLIANGANZHUANGZAIKAOJINSIGANGFUZHOUXIANDEWEIZHISHANG,ZHEIYANGDEHUA,GUANGZHACHIDEANZHUANGFUHELEABEIWUCHAZUIXIAOHUADEYUANZE,JIYAOQIUGUANGZHACHIANZHUANGWEIZHIKAOJINKONGZHIZHOUDEGONGZUOJIZHUNMIAN,YUEJINSUOXINGCHENGDEABEIWUCHAYUEXIAO,GUANGZHACHIKONGZHIDEWEIZHIJINGDUYUEGAO,JICHUANGDINGWEIJINGDUYUEHAO。DANSHIJIANZHONGYOUYUSHOUJIEGOUHEKONGJIANDEXIANZHI,GUANGZHACHIDEANZHUANGFANGSHIZHIYOULIANGZHONG,YIZHONGSHIANZHUANGZAIJINSIGANGFUCE,LINGYIZHONGSHIANZHUANGZAIDAOGUIWAICE。WEILEQUDEZUIXIAODEABEIWUCHA,TUIJIANJINKENENGXUANQUDIYIZHONGANZHUANGFANGSHI。FANZHI,XUANZELEGAOJINGDUDEGUANGZHACHI,ERSHIJIMEIYOUDADAOSHUKONGJICHUANGSUOYAOQIUDEJINGDU。

SUIRANGUANGZHACHIDEANZHUANGWEIZHIBIJIAOKAOJINQUDONGZHOUXIAN,DANSHIANZHUANGWEIZHIBIJINGYUQUDONGZHOUXIANYOUYIDINGJULI,ZHEIYIDIANJULIHEQUDONGSHIWUTIDEBAIDONGXIANGJIEHEHOU,DUIGUANGZHACHIDEJIANCEKONGZHIDAILAILEHENDADEMAFAN。DANGQUDONGWUTIXIANGGUANGZHACHIANZHUANGCEBAIDONGSHI,GUANGZHACHIZAIJIANCESHIWURENWEIYIDONGSUDUBUZU,XITONGZEJICHUJIASUXINHAO,ERQUDONGWUTIMASHANGXIANGLINGYICEBAIDONG,GUANGZHACHIZAIJIANCESHIYOUWURENWEIYIDONGSUDUTAIKUAI,XITONGZEJICHUJIANSUXINHAO,ZHEIYANGFANFANFUFUYUNXING,JURANMEIYOUGAISHANSHUKONGJICHUANGGEXIANXINGZUOBIAOZHOUDEKONGZHI,FANERJIAJULEQUDONGWUTIDEZHENDONG,DAOZHILEQUANBIHUANBURUBANBIHUANDEQITEXIANXIANG。YOUCIKANLAI,QUDONGWUTIQUDONGZHOUXIANDEWEIZHISHEJI、GUANGZHACHIDEANZHUANGWEIZHIHELIANGTIAODAOGUIDEZUNITEXINGZHIGUANZHONGYAO,BIXUYINQIJICHUANGSHEJISHIDEGAODUZHONGSHI,ZAISHEJIJICHUANGSHIBIXURENZHENKAOLVBEIFANGMIANYINSU,SHIBIQUDELIANGHAODE、MANZUSHEZHIYAOQIUDEXIAOGUO。

2.光栅尺定尺、滑尺的安装面及滑尺支架具有足够刚性和强度

GUANGZHACHIANZHUANGWEIZHIYAOYOUZUGOUGANGXINGHEQIANGDUYESHIBAOZHENGGUANGZHACHIZHENGCHANGGONGZUODEGUANJIANHUANJIE。GUANGZHACHISHITONGGUOGUANGDIANSAOMIAOYUANLILAIGONGZUODE,YINCIGUANGZHACHIBUNENGCHUYUQIANGZHENDONGZHUANGTAI,ZHENDONGYINQIGUANGYUANBUWENDINGYINGXIANGGUANGZHACHIDEKONGZHIJINGDU。SUOYIANZHUANGWEIZHIZUIHAOYUJICHUANGDEJIANGUZHUJIANWEIYITI,JISHIYOUYUJIEGOUYUANYINXUYONGLIANJIEJIAN,NEIMEYAOQIULIANJIEJIANYUJITIZHIJIANDEZHENGGEJIEHEERJIECHULIANGHAO,LIANJIEGANGXINGZU,YIFANGZHIJIEHEYULIANJIECHUCHANSHENGBORUOHUANJIEYINQIQIANGZHENDONGYINGXIANGGUANGZHACHIDEZHENGCHANGGONGZUO,ZUIZHONGDAOZHIJIAGONGZHONGXINDINGWEIJINGDUDEJIANGDI。

3.光栅尺安装位置应尽量远离机床的发热源

GUANGZHACHIANZHUANGWEIZHIYINGJINLIANGYUANLIJICHUANGDEFAREYUAN,YIBIMIANWENDUDEYINGXIANG,、GUANGZHACHIBENLAIBUPASHOURE,ZHENGTIHUANJINGWENDUDUIGUANGZHACHIDEYINGXIANGHENXIAO,KESHIJICHUANGDEREYUAN(RUGUNZHUSIGANGFU)ZAIJUBUCHANSHENGBUQUEDINGWENSHENGERCHANSHENGWUCHA,BINGQIEZHEIZHONGWUCHAHENNANKONGZHIYEHENNANSHISHIXIUZHENGHEBUCHANG,RUGUOGUANGZHACHITIEJINZHEIXIEDIFANG,SHIBIYINGXIANGGUANGZHACHIDEKONGZHIJINGDU。

4.光栅尺安装位置的防护非常重要

(1) ZAIXIANDAIJICHUANGZHONG,YONGHUYIBANDOUYAOQIUDALIULIANGLENGQUE,ERZAIDALIULIANGCHONGXISHI,HUIYOUQIEXUEYEFEIJIANDAOGUANGZHACHISHANG,GUANGZHACHIDEGONGZUOHUANJINGYECHONGMANLECHAOSHI、DAIYOULENGQUEPENWUDEKONGQI,ZAIZHEIZHONGHUANJINGXIAGUANGZHARONGYICHANSHENGLENGNINGXIANXIANG,SAOMIAOTOUSHANGYIJIEXIAYICENGBOMO。ZHEIYANGYILAI,JIUHUIDAOZHIGUANGZHACHIDEGUANGXIANTOUSHEBUJIA,ZAIJIASHANGGUANGZHARONGYILIUXIASHUIJI,YANZHONGYINGXIANGGUANGZHADECELIANG。RUGUOJIAGONGHOUDEQIEXIEZAIGUANGZHAFUJINDUIJIZAOCHENGPAIXIE、PAISHUIBUCHANG,HUIZHISHIGUANGZHACHIJINPAOZAIQIEXUEYEHEZAZHIZHONG,YOUCONGERYINGXIANGDAOGUANGZHADESHIYONG,GENGYANZHONGDEHUISHIGUANGZHACHISUNHUAI,SHIZHENGJICHUYUTANHUANZHUANGTAI。

(2)RUGUOGUANGZHACHICHUYUHENQIANGDELENGQUEPENWUHUOFENCHENZHONG,KETONGGUOYASUOKONGQICHULI,DANYASUOKONGQIBIXUJINGGUOGUOLVQIJINGHUA,BINGANISO 8573—1FUHEXIALIEZAZHIZHILIANGDENGJIYAOQIU,JIANFUBIAOSUOSHI。

三、线性光栅尺的安装

GUANGZHACHIDEJIEGOUJIANTU2SUOSHI,TASHIYOUDINGCHITI1HEDONGCHIDUSHUTOU2ZUCHENG。GUANGZHACHIDEDINGCHITISHIYIGELVWAIQIAO,YONGYIBAOHUQINEIDEBIAOCHI、SAOMIAODANYUANJIQIDAOGUIBUSHOUQIEXIE、HUICHENHEPENJIANSHUIDESHANGHAI。DONGCHIDUSHUTOUBAOHANSAOMIAODANYUAN、JINGMILIANJIEQIJIANZHUANGKUAIZUCHENG,JINGMILIANJIEQIJIANGSAOMIAODANYUANYUANZHUANGKUAILIANJIE,YONGLAIBUCHANGSHAOLIANGDEDAOGUIJIXIEWUCHA。

1.安装具的设计

CONGTU2ZHONGBUNANKANCHU,1.5mm±0.2mm、2mmCHICUNDUIGUANGZHACHIDECELIANGFEICHANGZHONGYAO,ANZHUANGSHIBIXUBAOZHENG。HAIYOUYIFANGMIANYINSU,DINGCHITIHEDONGCHIDUSHUTOUWEIFEIGANGXINGLIANJIE,QIESAOMIAODANYUANYUANZHUANGKUAIYONGJINGMILIANJIEQIDANXINGLIANJIE,YOUCIKANLAI,GUANGZHACHIDEZHENGQUEANZHUANGBINGFEISHIYIJIANRONGYIDESHI。WEICI,JINGDUOCIYANJIUSHEJILEYIGEJIJINGJIYOUSHIYONGDEZHUANYONGANZHUANGJU,JIANTU3SUOSHI。

2.调整安装

GUANGZHACHIDEDIAOZHENGANZHUANGSHIGUANGZHACHISHIYONGGUOCHENGZHONGYIGEBURONGHUSHIDEHUANJIE,DIAOZHENGANZHUANGDEHAOYUHUAIZHIJIEYINGXIANGGUANGZHACHIJIANCE、KONGZHIGONGZUODEZHILIANG,SUOYIBIXUYINQIZUGOUDEZHONGSHI。XIANYIXH768XINGWOSHIJIAGONGZHONGXINZXIANGXIANXINGZUOBIAOZHOUWEILI,JIESHAOGUANGZHACHIDEDIAOZHENGANZHUANGGUOCHENG。

(1)GUANGZHACHIANZHUANGJIZHUNMIANDEJIAGONG JIAGONGGUANGZHACHIDINGCHI、DONGCHIDEANZHUANGJIZHUNMIAN,BAOZHENGYUDAOGUIDEPINGXINGZAI0.02mmYINEI,ANZUOBIAOCHICUNJIAGONGCHUDINGCHIJIEHELUODINGKONG。

(2)QINGLIGEANZHUANGJIZHUNMIAN,JIANGZHUANYONGANZHUANGJU1GUDINGZAIDINGCHIANZHUANGMIANSHANG,DONGCHIZHIJIA2YUZHUANYONGANZHUANGJUKEKAOLIANJIE,ANSHICECHICUNPEIMODIAOZHENGDIAN3,PEIZUODONGCHIZHIJIAYUHUAZUOJIEHELUODINGJIZHUIXIAO,JIANTU4SUOSHI。

(3)QUXIAZHUANYONGANZHUANGJU,JIANGGUANGZHACHI4ANZHUANGZHIWEIZHIJIKE。

四、数控系统参数的调整

1.反向间隙的补偿

SHOUXIANYAOQIUJIXIEANZHUANGWANCHENGHOUDEFANXIANGJIANXIBIXUBAOZHENGZAIYIDINGFANWEINEI。FANXIANGJIANXIZAIBUTONGSUDUXIAQIEHUANFANGXIANGSHIDESHUZHIBUTONG,SUOYIFANXIANGJIANXIBUCHANGSHIDUIJINJIHEKUAISUYIDONGFENKAIJINXINGBUCHANG,CHUANTONGXIGUANSHANGZHISHISHEDINGQIANZHE,ZHEISHIBUKEXUEDE。YIFANUC OiXITONGWEILI,SHUOMINGRUXIA:

CANSHU:P1851:GEZHOUJINJISHIDEFANXIANGJIANXIBUCHANGZHI。

MEIDINGZHI:ANQIEXUEJINJI(YIBANQU500~1000mm/min)SHIJIANCEDEFANXIANGJIANXIZHISHEDING(YONGJIGUANGGANSHEYICELIANG)。

CANSHU:P1852.GEZHOUKUAISUSHIDEFANXIANGJIANXIBUCHANGZHI。

SHEDINGZHI:ANKUAISU(LIRU10000mm/min)SHIJIANCEDEFANXIANGJIANXIZHISHEDING(YONGJIGUANGGANSHEYICELIANG)。

CANSHU:P1800#4 RBK。

SHEDINGZHI:CIWEICANSHUSHEDINGWEI1,ZEQIEXUEHEKUAISUDEFANXIANGJIANXIKEYIFENBIESHENGXIAO。

2.螺距误差的补偿

SHUKONGXITONGYIBANMEIZHOUSHEZHIZUIDAKEDA128DIANDELUOJUWUCHABUCHANGDIANSHU。BIYAOSHI,KEDUIMOUZHOUJINXINGBUCHANG,YIBANXIGUANSHIAN50mmHUO100mmDEJIANGEJINXINGBUCHANG,WEILETIGAOJINGDU,JIANYIYONG5mmHUO10mmDEJIANGEJINXINGBUCHANG,XIAOGUOGENGHAO。

3.补偿计数器的设定

QUANBIHUANKONGZHISHI,TONGCHANGSHEDINGBUCHANGJISHUQI,YIFANUCOiXITONGWEILI,SHUOMINGRUXIA:CANSHU:P2010#5 HBBLFANXIANGWENXIBUCHANGZHIJIADAOWUCHAJISHUQIZHONG。

SHEDINGZHI:SHEDINGWEI0,BIAOSHIWEIBANBIHUANFANGSHI(BIAOZHUNSHEDING)。

CANSHU:P2010#4 HBPELUOJUWUCHABUCHANGZHIJIADAOWUCHAJISHUQIZHONG。

SHEDINGZHI:SHEDINGWEI0,BIAOSHIWEIQUANBIHUANFANGSHI(BIAOZHUNSHEDING)。

4.提高增益设定

ZAIWUZHENDONGDEQIANTIXIA,JINLIANGTIGAOWEIZHIHUANZENGYIP1825,SUDUHUANZENGYIP2043、P2045JIFUZAIGUANLIANGBIP2021DENGCANSHU。

五、结论

ZONGJIEFENXIYISHANGYINSU,YOUHUXIANGTONGYIDEYIMIAN,HELIXUANQUGUANGZHACHI,ZHENGQUESHIYONGSHIQIWUJINQINENG;YEYOUHUXIANGMAODUNDEYIMIAN,ANZHUANGWEIZHIJIYAOJINKENENGKAOJINQUDONGZHOUXIAN,YOUYAOJINLIANGYUANLIJICHUANGDEFAREYUAN(RUSIGANGFU),ZHEIJIUYAOKANJICHUANGSHEJISHI,ZENYANGJIANGUZHEZHONGKAOLVGEFANGMIANYINSU,ZONGHEKAOLVGUANGZHACHIXUANXING、SHEJI、ANZHUANG、BASHIDENGYINSU,DEDAOBIJIAOHELIDEXINGJIABI,SHIBIQUDEBIJIAOHAODEKONGZHIJIANCEXIAOGUO。

TONGGUOYISHANGJIGEBUZHOUDEDIAOSHI,YITAISHUKONGJICHUANGYIBANDOUNENGHUODEHENHAODEWEIZHIJINGDU(DINGWEIJINGDU、ZHONGFUDINGWEIJINGDU),DADAOJICHUANGSHEJIYAOQIU,NENGHENRONGYIMANZUYONGHUDEXUQIU,DUISHUKONGJICHUANGDEZHIZAOCHANGJIAHESHIYONGYONGHUYOUZHEFEIFANDEXIANSHIYIYI。

WEIXINSAOYISAO

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